Dhammapada

Pakinnakavagga

302

Duppabbajjaṃ durabhiramaṃ, durāvāsā gharā dukhā; Dukkhosamānasaṃvāso, dukkhānupatitaddhagū. Tasmā na caddhagū siyā, na ca dukkhānupatito siyā.
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Difficult is life as a monk; difficult is it to delight therein. Also difficult and sorrowful is the household life. Suffering comes from association with unequals; suffering comes from wandering in samsara. Therefore, be not an aimless wanderer, be not a pursuer of suffering.
Трудно оставить мирской уклад, трудно радоваться; трудна и несчастна жизнь в доме, трудно жить с иными, чем ты. Несчастье преследует странника. Поэтому не будь странником и пусть несчастье не преследует тебя.

Grammar

This verse consists of seven syntactically separate sentences. They are: 1) duppabbajjaj (it is difficult to become a monk). The subject is the compound duppabbajjaj (it is difficult to go forth, nominative singular). 2) durabhiramaj (it is difficult to enjoy it). The subject is the compound durabhiramaj (it is difficult to enjoy, nominative singular). 3) duravasa ghara dukkha (unpleasant and difficult to endure is a life of a householder). The subject is the noun ghara (houses, nominative plural). The verb is omitted, implying the verb "to be". There are two objects, the adjectives duravasa (difficult to live in, nominative plural) and dukkha (painful, nominative plural). 4) dukkho asamanasajvaso (painful is association with unequal). The subject is the compound asamanasajvaso (association with unequal, nominative singular). The verb is omitted, implying the verb "to be". The object is the adjective dukkho (painful, nominative singular). 5) dukkhanupatitaddhagu (wanderer in the round of rebirth is always followed by suffering). The subject is the noun addhagu (wanderer, nominative singular). The verb is omitted, implying the verb "to be". The object is the compound dukkhanupatito (followed by suffering, nominative singular). 6) tasma na caddhagu siya (therefore, do not be a wanderer). The subject is omitted, the verb implying the third person singular pronoun. The verb is siya (should be, 3rd person, singular, active, optative). It is negated by the negative particle na (not). The object is the noun addhagu (wanderer, nominative singular). The conjunction ca (and) serves mainly metrical purposes. The pronoun tasma (therefore, lit. "from that", ablative singular) introduces the sentence. 7) na ca dukkhanupatito siya (do not be followed by suffering). The subject is omitted, the verb implying the third person singular pronoun. The verb is siya (should be, 3rd person, singular, active, optative). It is negated by the negative particle na (not). The object is the compound dukkhanupatito (followed by suffering, nominative singular). The conjunction ca (and) serves mainly metrical purposes.

Commentary

Once there was a big festival in Vesali. The city was lit up and full of happy people, everybody was singing and dancing. A young monk in the monastery saw the festival from a distance and felt dissatisfied with his life as a monk. He complained aloud that he has the worst lot in the whole world. At that instant, a guardian spirit appeared and told the monk that as those in hells envy those in heaven, so do people from the city envy the monks in the forest. The monk realized the truth. In the morning he told this story to the Buddha, who admonished him with this verse, further adding that the monk should reflect on the impermanence and pain in the lives of all beings.