Dhammapada

Panditavagga

84

Na attahetu na parassa hetu, na puttamicche na dhanaṃ na raṭṭhaṃ. Na iccheyya adhammena samiddhimattano, sa sīlavā paññavā dhammiko siyā.
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He is indeed virtuous, wise, and righteous who neither for his own sake nor for the sake of another (does any wrong), who does not crave for sons, wealth, or kingdom, and does not desire success by unjust means.
Ни ради самого себя, ни ради другого не возжелает он ни сына, ни богатства, ни царства. На незаконной стезе не возжелает он себе успеха. Да будет он благороден, мудр и справедлив.

Grammar

This sentence consists of two sentences. They are: 1) na attahetu na parassa hetu na puttam icche na dhanaj na ratthaj na iccheyya adhammena samiddhim attano (one should not want a son, wealth or kingdom, not for one's own sake, not for the sake of others, one should not want one's own prosperity by injustice). This can be further subdivided into two segments: a) na attahetu na parassa hetu na puttam icche na dhanaj na ratthaj (one should not want a son, wealth or kingdom, not for one's own sake, not for the sake of others). Here the subject is omitted, the verb is implying the third person singular pronoun. The verb is icche ([one] should want, 3rd person, singular, active, optative). This verb is negated by several negative particles na (not). There are five objects: ratthaj (kingdom, accusative singular), dhanaj (wealth, accusative singular), puttam (a son, accusative singular), attahetu (one's own sake, accusative singular) and hetu (for sake of, accusative singular). This last object has an attribute, the adjective parassa (other's, genitive plural). b) na iccheyya adhammena samiddhim attano (one should not want one's own prosperity by injustice). Again, the subject is omitted. The verb is iccheyya (should want, 3rd person, singular, active, optative). This verb is negated by the negative particle na (not). The object is samiddhim (prosperity, accusative singular). This word has two attributes, attano (one's own, genitive singular) and adhammena (by injustice, instrumental singular). 2) sa silava pabbava dhammiko siya (such a person is virtuous, wise and righteous). The subject is the personal pronoun sa (he, nominative singular). The verb is siya (would be, 3rd person, singular, active, optative). There are three objects, the adjectives silava (virtuous), pabbava (wise) and dhammiko (righteous). They are all in nominative singular).

Commentary

In the city of Savatthi, there lived a man with his pregnant wife. He wanted to become a monk so he asked his wife for permission. She told him to wait after the baby is born. When it happened, she again asked him to stay until the child could walk. When the man finally got to be a monk, he took a subject of meditation, practiced diligently and soon attained arahantship. A few years later he visited his house in order to teach Dharma to his family. His son became a monk too and soon he also became an Arahant. The wife thought, "If both my husband and my son entered the Order, I'd better go too." So she left the house and became a nun. Eventually she too attained arahantship. The Buddha was told how the whole family attained arahantship and he replied by this verse. He added, that a wise man works for his liberation and helps others towards the same goal. The awakenment can be realized only after much effort.