Dhammapada

Panditavagga

89

Yesaṃ sambodhiyaṅgesu, sammā cittaṃ subhāvitaṃ; Ādānapaṭinissagge, anupādāya ye ratā. Khīṇāsavā jutimanto, te loke parinibbutā.
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Those whose minds have reached full excellence in the factors of enlightenment, who, having renounced acquisitiveness, rejoice in not clinging to things — rid of cankers, glowing with wisdom, they have attained Nibbana in this very life.
Те, чей ум должным образом опирается на начала просветления, отказавшиеся от привязанностей, радующиеся освобождению, с уничтоженными желаниями, полные блеска, они в этом мире достигли нирваны.

Grammar

This verse consists of two related sentences. They are: 1) yesaj sambodhiyavgesu samma cittaj subhavitaj adanapatinissagge anupadaya ye rata khinasava jutimanto (people, whose mind is truly well developed in the constituents of awakenment, who are delighting in renunciation of attachments, without clinging, with the taints removed and brilliant). This sentence can be further subdivided into two segments: a) yesaj sambodhiyavgesu samma cittaj subhavitaj (people, whose mind is truly well developed in the constituents of awakenment). Here the subject is the noun cittaj (mind, nominative singular). It has an attribute, the relative pronoun yesaj (whose, genitive plural). The past participle subhavitaj (well developed, nominative singular) serves as the verb of this sentence. It has two attributes, the adverb samma (truly) and the compound sambodhiyavgesu (in the constituents of awakenment). b) adanapatinissagge anupadaya ye rata khinasava jutimanto (who are delighting in renunciation of attachments, without clinging, with the taints removed and brilliant). The subject of this sentence is the relative pronoun ye (those, who; nominative plural). It has four attributes, the gerund anupadaya (without clinging), the compound khinasava (having taints removed, nominative plural), the adjective jutimanto (brilliant, nominative plural) and the past participle rata (delighting in, nominative plural). This last word has an attribute, the compound adanapatinissagge (in the renunciation of attachments, locative singular). The verb is omitted, implying the verb "to be". 2) te loke parinibbuta (they are completely emancipated in this world). The subject is the pronoun te (they, nominative plural). The verb is again omitted; the verb "to be" is implied. The subject has an attribute, the past participle parinibbuta (completely emancipated, nominative plural). This word has the noun loke (in [this] world, locative singular) as an attribute.

Commentary

A group of monks came to see the Buddha and asked him for advice on meditation. The Buddha advised them with this verse and with the two preceeding ones (DhP 87, DhP 88). In order to reach the awakenment, one must fully develop the "constituents of awakenment". They are seven: mindfulness (sati), investigation of the Dharma (dhammavicaya), energy (viriya), joy (piti), tranquility (passadhi), concentration (samadhi) and equanimity (upekkha). We also must not cling to anything and take delight in renouncing all the attachments. Most importantly, we must "remove the taints". Traditionally, these four taints (asava) are mentioned in the texts: sense desire (kama), desiring eternal existence (bhava), wrong views (ditthi) and ignorance (avijja). If we remove these taints, we will "shine" with wisdom and be truly completely emancipated from the suffering.